What is Low Voltage? Where It is Used?

We often hear that the voltage is limited to low or high. We hear these terms when we talkabout voltage, but what do these terms mean, and do they apply internationally? These terms that we frequently encounter while talking about voltage and its classification ie high or low voltage are variable. So the interesting thing is that these terms may differ from country to country. In other words, these values ​​may differ as well depending on the country you are on, as there are no internationally determined standard figures you need to be careful. In terms of low voltage and classifications in this parallel, which voltage range is accepted within which limit varies too. For this reason, it is necessary to pay attention to the values ​​changing depending on the place where the measurement is made, especially in international projects. The concept of low voltage, which concerns the field of electrical engineering and the services provided in this field, is often used in conjunction with other voltage classifications. Let’s take a look at them.alçak gerilim nedir

What Is Voltage  and When It is Low Voltage?

What is voltage? The potential difference between two ends of a conductor is called voltage. It is the potential difference expressed in volts or the pressure to be simple. As an electrical engineering term, low voltage is actually a relative concept, so its definition can vary depending on the context. The low voltage network has a voltage between 1 volt and 1000 volts. By transmitting electrical energy, the voltage level is increased to carry the energy over long distances, that is, to transfer it from one place to another. If it travels a long distance from somewhere, we encounter high voltage, which allows the energy to be transmitted without loss. Where do we use high voltaged electrical energy? From primary sources like plants, to the consumers, the electricity produced is delivered through a complex network. The generated electricity at a power plant moves through a grid system, then to electricity substations, and to transformers, and finally to the power lines. High voltage power lines bring energy to the consumers. In other words, in the facilities in the distribution areas, these high voltage lines and transformers are found. The voltage in the transformer is reduced this time and the electricity, which is distributed in high voltage, is brought back to the low voltage level while it is given to the individual residences and workplaces.

Low Voltage in Turkey

It is quite important to note that this term may vary from country to country, and it also depends on the context as well. The term low voltage can be used for the voltage values ​​between 1 volt and 1000 volts in low voltage networks in general. But for users (especially in personal use, in residences), this value is between 220 Volts and 380 Volts. In this range, it can be said that in Turkey it is in the low voltage range for electricity. So these numbers are valid for the consumers in Turkey. The effective value of low voltage is called 1000 volts and below, including 1000 Volts in general.alçak gerilim nedir

How Is Voltage Classified?

While low voltage is the name given to values ​​of thousand volts and below, we encounter the question of what is high and medium voltage. The answer to the question of how to classify electrical network systems according to voltage levels lies in these terms and definitions. When we talk about systems that carry or can carry an electrical energy load between 0 Volt and 1000 Volt (note that sometimes it is 600v not 1000v), we can call them low voltage networks. We mentioned this range above too. On the one hand, there are values ​​above this, that is, loads over 1000 Volts that can be carried. Here, the system that carries an electrical load in the range of one thousand to 35 thousand volts having all necessary equipment to do so, is called a medium voltage network. There are low, medium and high voltage networks. When it is at the highest level there is a classification called a very high voltage.

Dual Classification: Low and High Voltage

When a binary classification is made for the voltage levels, we come across the concepts of low voltage and high voltage. When it is divided as low and high, low voltage is used for voltages below 1000 Volts or 600 Volts in some countries, and high voltage is called over that (over thousand volts in Turkey). In the binary classification of voltage in electrical energy, the limit of one thousand volts is accepted usually.

What is Kilovolt and Low Voltage Network?

Low voltage network is the general name of networks with voltage between one volt and one thousand volts. In other words, systems carrying voltages between 1 V and 1000 V are considered as low voltage networks. This remains between 1 V and 1 KV (kilovolt), in short, when the term kilovolt is used. Voltages up to one kilovolt are included in the low voltage range in this system. It is written as 1 KV for ease of use or for mathematical simplicity when expressing. On the other hand, networks carrying 154 to 380 kV loads are considered as high voltage systems, and those with 34.5 kV are considered as medium voltage networks.

Low voltage networks refer to the lines from the distribution transformer to the location of the user, that is, the consumer (with a household usage). Low voltage insulation is easy to manage in many ways and is therefore used in close proximity to the user. In addition, it is makes sense in terms of security, it is easy to avoid risky situations using low voltage so it is used in systems close to the consumers. On the other hand high voltage system installation, maintenance and taking safety measures can be difficult, costly and high levels can create electromagnetic fields that may cause some health problems. Therefore it is not wanted near houses.

What are the Differences of Low and High Voltage?

Why don’t we usually use low voltage line in distribution? High and very high voltage lines, ie systems carrying 1000 volts – 154 thousand volts and above, may be required in special cases. Because right after the generation of electrical energy in a power plant, low voltage may be insufficient to transmit this energy and carry it to longer distances and far away places. Just as high voltage lines are generally laid between the power plant and the main campus, low voltage is not sufficient there. However, it is possible to use low voltage in distribution. In other words, low voltage lines can be used in the distribution of electricity within the city and between nearby cities (for closer locations). In addition, the high voltage line should be placed at a distance of 50 meters from each side of the buildings (according to Turkish laws) and at a height of 9 m 45 cm. For cases that violate this, legal action can be initiated, and owners of the land or property can apply for penalties or compensation. In different countries there are various similar rules about high voltage lines near residencies. alçak gerilim nedir

Where Do We Use Low Voltage?

The electrical energy voltage used in for our daily needs has been determined as 220V in residences and 380V in industrial facilities. The increase in voltage complicates the isolation procedures and safety measures. Moreover, electrical devices that will operate with high voltage are more difficult to manufacture and are very costly. Therefore, a system in which electrical appliances that can operate with a low voltage of 110V – 380V are common, has been adopted to that from the beginning. In electronic devices, the situation is as follows, direct current and lower voltage levels are required and adapters provide this. Therefore, the most electiric devices have adapters and when plugged into the socket, the mains voltage is converted to direct current and the voltage is reduced. The adapters are of a great importance for the protection of electronics and in case of malfunctions in your socket or adapter, an authorized service should be consulted immediately because of that.


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